Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share on Google+ Share by Email

Skip to content

Key resources

  • Bibliography
  • Health promotion
    Health promotion
  • Health practice
    Health practice
  • Yarning places
    Yarning places
  • Programs
  • Organisations
  • Conferences
  • Courses
  • Funding
  • Glossary
Print this page Print

Health impacts


Holmes J, Rawsthorne M, Paxton K, Luscombe G, Hawke C, Ivers R, Skinner R, Steinbeck K (2017)

Risk-taking behaviours among younger adolescents in rural and regional New South Wales: preventing adverse health outcomes.

Rural Society; Latest articles(


Steering Committee for the Review of Government Service Provision (2016)

Overcoming Indigenous disadvantage: key indicators 2016 report.

Canberra: Productivity Commission

This report measures the wellbeing of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. It is the seventh report in a series commissioned by all Australian governments, designed to measure progress in overcoming the disadvantage faced by many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The report is produced by the Steering Committee, commissioned by the Council of Australia Governments (COAG), in consultation with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The Steering Committee is advised by a working group made up of representatives from all Australian governments, the National Congress of Australia's First Peoples, the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

The report measures progress in relation to COAG Closing the Gap targets and against 52 indicators. Progress is measured across a range of areas including governance, leadership and culture, early childhood, education, health, home and safe and supportive communities. The report also includes case studies on things that work to improve outcomes.

The information in this report can help inform the design of policies.

Abstract adapted from Productivity Commission


Glover M, Kira A, Johnston V, Walker N, Brown N, Thomas D (2015)

Australian and New Zealand Indigenous mothers' report respect for smoking bans in homes.

Women and Birth; 28(1): 1-7

Lalla Y, Matias M, Farah CS (2015)

Oral mucosal disease in an Australian urban Indigenous community using autofluorescence imaging and reflectance spectroscopy.

Australian Dental Journal; 60(2): 216–224

Li M, McDermott R (2015)

Albuminuria and its associated biomedical factors among Indigenous adults in Far North Queensland: a 7-year follow up study.

BMC Nephrology; 16: 208

Retrieved 10 December 2015 from

Walker N, Johnston V, Glover M, Bullen C, Trenholme A, Chang A, Morris P, Segan C, Brown N, Fenton D, Hawthorne E, Borland R, Parag V, Von BlarambergT, Westphal D, Thomas D (2015)

Effect of a family-centered, secondhand smoke intervention to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand: a randomized controlled trial.

Nicotine & Tobacco Research; 17(4): 48-57


Ashton M, Rigby A, Galletly C (2014)

Do population-wide tobacco control approaches help smokers with mental illness?.

Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry; 48(2): 121 - 123

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014)

Australia’s health 2014: in brief.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2014)

Australia’s health 2014: the 14th biennial health report of the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australia's health 2014 was released by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare as the fourtenth edition of its biennial national health report. The report shows that Australia is one of the healthiest nations in the world, with most Australians generally have good health and access to a range of good health care services, but Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to have much poorer health than the general population.

Health information about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is included in various sections of the report but particularly in chapter 7 which compiles information about demographic profiles, health status, disability rates and service use. The section highlights that Indigenous Australians are continuing to die at much younger ages than non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians also continue to have a greater disease burden, higher rates of disability and a lower quality of life than other Australians. The section concludes with information on behaviours and health risk factors that shape the health status of Indigenous peoples such as tobacco use, alcohol misuse and illicit drug use.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Campbell S, Bohanna I, McKeown-Young D, Esterman A, Cadet-James Y, McDermontt R (2014)

Evaluation of a community-based tobacco control intervention in five remote north Queensland Indigenous communities.

International Journal of Health Promotion and Education; 52(2): 78-79

Gould GS (2014)

Patient-centred tobacco management.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 33(1): 93–98

Hodyl NA, Grzeskowiak LE, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Clifton VL (2014)

The impact of Aboriginal status, cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes in South Australia.

Medical Journal of Australia; 201(5): 274-278

Mendelsohn C, Gould GS, Oncken C (2014)

Management of smoking in pregnant women.

Australian Family Physician; 43(1): 46-51

Scott NS (2014)

Informing public health policy and practice in populations with diverse needs.

Doctor of Public Health thesis, University of New South Wales: Sydney

South Eastern Sydney Local Health District (2014)

Strategic plan for the prevention of smoking and harm from smoking 2014-2017.

Sydney: NSW Health

Wang Z, Scott J, Wang Z, Hoy WE (2014)

Trends in health status and chronic disease risk factors over 10–14 years in a remote Australian community: a matched pair study.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 38(1): 73-77


Dawson GM, Noller JM, Skinner JC (2013)

Models of smoking cessation brief interventions in oral health.

New South Wales Public Health Bulletin; 24(3): 131-134

Gould GS, Munn J, Watters T, McEwen A, Clough AR (2013)

Knowledge and views about maternal tobacco smoking and barriers for cessation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: a systematic review and meta-ethnography.

Nicotine & Tobacco Research; 15(5): 863-874

Indig D, Wodak AD, Richmond RL, Butler TG, Archer VA, Wihelm KA (2013)

Heroin use impairs smoking cessation among Australian prisoners.

BMC Public Health; 13: 1200

Retrieved 19 December 2013 from

National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2013)

National core maternity indicators.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

No smoking good story (2013)

Northern Territory Department of Correctional Services

This resource package provides information on the total tobacco ban in Northern Territory prisons for prison staff, inmates and detainees.

Area-specific brochures were created for Alice Springs, Darwin and Tennant Creek and provide information on:

  • what smoking does to your body
  • how to stop smoking
  • things to do when you feel like having a smoke
  • where to get help.

The package also includes a video which outlines the introduction of the tobacco ban campaign.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Richmond RL, Indig D, Butler TG, Wilhelm KA, Archer VA, Wodak AD (2013)

Smoking and other drug characteristics of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal prisoners in Australia.

Journal of Addiction; 2013: 516342

Retrieved 10 March 2013 from

Robertson J, Conigrave K, Ivers R, Hindmarsh E, Clough A (2013)

Addressing high rates of smoking in remote Aboriginal communities : new evidence for GPs.

Australian Family Physician; 42(7): 492-496

Stevenson LC, Bohanna I, Robertson JA, Clough AR (2013)

Aboriginal people in remote communities in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory) restrict their smoking in some environments: implications for developing and implementing interventions to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 32(6): 627–630

Thomas DP, Ferguson M, Johnston V, Brimblecombe J (2013)

Impact and perceptions of tobacco tax increase in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

Nicotine & Tobacco Research; 15(6): 1099-1106

Whelan S, Wright DJ (2013)

Health services use and lifestyle choices of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.

Social Science & Medicine; 84: 1–12

Zhao Y, Wright J, Begg S, Guthridge S (2013)

Decomposing the Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis.

Population Health Metrics; 11: 1

Retrieved 29 January 2013 from

This study aims to explain the Indigenous life expectancy (LE) gap by common modifiable risk factors in the period from 1986 to 2005. The LE gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract


Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012)

Australian social trends, June 2012.

Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

A picture of Australia's children 2012.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2012)

Risk factors contributing to chronic disease.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Bond C, Brough M, Spurling G, Hayman N (2012)

‘It had to be my choice' Indigenous smoking cessation and negotiations of risk, resistance and resilience.

Health, Risk & Society; 14(6): 565-581

Carson KV, Brinn MP, Labiszewski NA, Peters M, Chang AB, Veale A, Esterman AJ, Smith BJ (2012)

Interventions for tobacco use prevention in Indigenous youth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; (8): CD009325

Retrieved 15 August 2012 from

Conigrave KM, Lee KSK (2012)

Smoking or alcohol dependence among Indigenous Australians: treatment may be needed, not just education.

Heart, Lung and Circulation; 21(10): 626–631

Footprints in Time (2012)

Footprints in Time: the longitudinal study of Indigenous children: key summary report from Wave 3.

Canberra: Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs

Nelson AL, Macdonald D, Abbott RA (2012)

A risky business? Health and physical activity from the perspectives of urban Australian Indigenous young people.

Health, Risk & Society; 14(4): 325-340

Odongo JB (2012)

Reducing tobacco-related harm in the Alice Springs region.

The Chronicle; 24(3): 23-24

Pierce J (2012)

Smoking: an Indigenous health challenge.

The Chronicle; 24(2): 5

Pircher SLM, Li SQ, Guthridge SL (2012)

Trend analysis of hospital admissions attributable to tobacco smoking, Northern Territory Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, 1998 to 2009.

BMC Public Health; 12: 545

Retrieved 24 July 2012 from

Stewart JM, Sanson-Fisher RW, Eades S, Fitzgerald M (2012)

The risk status, screening history and health concerns of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people attending an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 31(5): 617–624

Thomas DP (2012)

Changes in smoking intensity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, 1994–2008.

Medical Journal of Australia; 197(9): 503-506

This article describes smoking intensity among Indigenous Australians (15 years and older) between 1994 and 2008. Changes in smoking intensity in this period were determined through analysis of data from the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander survey, 1994 and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander social survey, 2008. Results indicate a decrease in the number of Indigenous people smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day (CPD), and an increase in the number of Indigenous people smoking 1-10 CPD.

Abstract adapted from Thomas, David P

Thomson N, MacRae A, Brankovich J, Burns J, Catto M, Gray C, Levitan L, Maling C, Potter C, Ride K, Stumpers S, Urquhart B (2012)

Overview of Australian Indigenous health status, 2011.

Perth, WA: Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet

Wise M, Massi L, Rose M, Nancarrow H, Conigrave K, Bauman A, Hearn S (2012)

Developing and implementing a state-wide Aboriginal health promotion program: the process and factors influencing successful delivery.

Health Promotion Journal of Australia; 23(1): 25-29


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

Substance use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011)

The health of Australia's prisoners 2010.

Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian (2011)

Your views... Detention Queensland 2011.

Brisbane: Commission for Children and Young People and Child Guardian

Department of Health and Ageing (2011)

Closing the gap: the Indigenous Chronic Disease Package in 2010-11 annual progress report on the Australian Government's contribution to the National Partnership Agreement on Closing the Gap in Indigenous Health Outcomes.

Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing

Hughes D (2011)

Give smokes the flick – a qualitative evaluation of two quit smoking resources for Aboriginal pregnant women.

Lismore, NSW: Clinical Education and Training Institute Rural Directorate

The Give smokes the flick, it really makes cents (GSTF) resource was developed for workers with pregnant Aboriginal clients.

This evaluation aimed to determine if workers and clients found this resource effective and culturally appropriate. It also aimed to determine the impact the resource had on smoking behaviours of pregnant Aboriginal women and their families and the Aboriginal workers connected to them.

The evaluation found that GSTF is an effective smoking cessation strategy for Aboriginal people. By clearly linking quitting tobacco use to financial savings, it appears to resonate within the context of disadvantage faced by many Aboriginal people and motivate smokers to reduce or quit smoking. GSTF was considered culturally appropriate, however the study identified major skills gaps amongst workers providing cessation services to Aboriginal clients.

Abstract adapted from Clinical Education and Training Institute Rural Directorate

Richmond RL, Wilhelm KA, Indig D, Butler TG, Archer VA, Wodak AD (2011)

Cardiovascular risk among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal smoking male prisoners: inequalities compared to the wider community.

BMC Public Health; 11: 783

Retrieved from

Thrift AP, Nancarrow H, Bauman AE (2011)

Maternal smoking during pregnancy among Aboriginal women in New South Wales is linked to social gradient.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 35(4): 337-342

VicHealth (2011)

Aboriginal health in Victoria - research summary.

Melbourne: VicHealth


Boyle T, Shepherd CC, Pearson G, Monteiro H, McAullay D, Economo K, Stewart S (2010)

Awareness and impact of the ‘Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

Tobacco Control; 19(1): 83-86

Dingwall KM, Cairney S (2010)

Detecting psychological symptoms related to substance use among Indigenous Australians.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 30(1): 33-39

Jamieson LM, Gunthorpe W, Cairney SJ, Sayers SM, Roberts-Thomson KF, Slade GD (2010)

Substance use and periodontal disease among Australian Aboriginal young adults.

Addiction; 105(4): 719-726

Johnston V, Walker N, Thomas DP, Glover M, Chang AB, Bullen C, Morris P, Brown N, Vander Hoorn S, Borland R, Segan C, Trenholme A, Mason T, Fenton D, Ellis K (2010)

The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants.

BMC Public Health; (10): 114

Retrieved 7 March 2010 from

Panaretto K, Coutts J, Johnson L, Morgan A, Dallas Leon D, Hayman N (2010)

Evaluating performance of and organisational capacity to deliver brief interventions in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander medical services.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 34(1): 38-44

Thomas D, Johnston V, Fitz J (2010)

Lessons for Aboriginal tobacco control in remote communities: an evaluation of the Northern Territory 'Tobacco Project'.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 34(1): 45-49

Wilkes E, Gray D, Saggers S, Casey W, Stearne A (2010)

Substance misuse and mental health among Aboriginal Australians.

In: Purdie N, Dudgeon P, Walker R, eds. Working together: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mental health and wellbeing principles and practice. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing: 117-134


Boffa J, Tilton E, Legge D, Genat B (2009)

Reducing the harm from alcohol, tobacco and obesity in Indigenous communities: key approaches and actions.


Clough AR, Robertson JA, MacLaren DJ (2009)

The gap in tobacco use between remote Indigenous Australian communities and the Australian population can be closed [letters].

Tobacco Control; 18(4): 335

Good Health Alliance of the Northern Territory (2009)

Smoking in the Northern Territory.

The Chronicle; 14(3): 16-17

Heart Foundation (2009)

Indigenous tobacco control: position statement.

Canberra: Heart Foundation

McMillan N (2009)

Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control (CEITC) tackling high Indigenous smoking rates.

The Chronicle; 14(3): 27

Panaretto KS, Mitchell MR, Anderson L, Gilligan C, Buettner P, Larkins SL, Eades S (2009)

Tobacco use and measuring nicotine dependence among urban Indigenous pregnant women.

Medical Journal of Australia; 191(10): 554-557

Passey M, Gale J, Holt B, Leatherday C, Roberts C, Kay D, Rogers L, Paden V (2009)

Stop smoking in its tracks: understanding smoking by rural Aboriginal women.

Paper presented at the Rural health: the place to be ... The 10th National Rural Health Conference. 17-20 May 2009, Cairns, Qld

Pilkington AAG, Carter OBJ, Cameron AS, Thompson SC (2009)

Tobacco control practices among Aboriginal health professionals in Western Australia.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 15(2): 152-158

Power J, Grealy C, Rintoul D (2009)

Tobacco interventions for Indigenous Australians: a review of current evidence.

Health Promotion Journal of Australia; 20(3): 186-194

Robertson J, Clough A (2009)

Can doing research be a catalyst for changing tobacco smoking? An example from remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory.

Paper presented at the Rural health: the place to be ... The 10th National Rural Health Conference. 17-20 May 2009, Cairns, Qld

Robertson JA, MacLaren DJ, Clough AR (2009)

Should the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee extend the range of free nicotine replacement therapies available for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people? [letter].

Medical Journal of Australia; 191(5): 293

Spillman T (2009)

Yaka Narali: East Arhnem Region update.

The Chronicle; 14(3): 8-9


Burgess P, McDonald J, Djabibba S, Namunurki S, Magaldagi L, Connors C, Matthews H, Thomas D (2008)

"Smoke-busters": Maningrida's experience implementing a tobacco control program.

The Chronicle; 11(4): 8-10

Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control (CEITC) (2008)

Indigenous tobacco control in Australia: Everybody's Business: National Indigenous Tobacco Control Research Roundtable report.

Brisbane: Centre for Excellence in Indigenous Tobacco Control (CEITC)

This publication reports on the roundtable discussions of representatives from community-controlled organisations, research institutes, state, territory and federal governments and non-government agencies, pertaining to the gaps and priorities for Indigenous tobacco control research.

Five keys areas which required further analysis were identified:

* creating positive environments for smoking cessation
* improving our understanding of motivations for smoking and not smoking
* improving our knowledge of best practice interventions
* empowering and supporting the health workforce
* best use of resources to support tobacco control

The report highlighted the need to carry these key ideas forward, for example, in terms of the Federal Government's National Indigenous Tobacco Iniatitive.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

National Prescribing Service (2008)

Nicotine patches for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

NPS RADAR; (December 2008)

Retrieved 1 December 2008 from

Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services (2008)

Smoking in prison.

Perth: Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services

Reeve CA, De La Rue S, McBain KE (2008)

Indigenous lifescripts: a tool for modifying lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease.

Australian Family Physician; 37(9): 750-754

Robinson J (2008)

Top End tobacco project.

The Chronicle; 11(5): 26-27

Urbis (2008)

Indigenous smoking scoping study: prepared for South Australian Department of Health.

Adelaide: South Australia Department of Health


Angurugu, Umbakumba, Alyangula, Miluakburra (2007)

Top End tobacco challenge: addressing tobacco related illness at Groote and Bickerton.

The Chronicle; 10(5): 4-5

Colbung V, Gilchrist D, Gatti S, Schulz A, Sorensen M (2007)

Goldfields smoke free project: Aboriginal population Puyu Wanti report 2007.

Perth, WA: Western Australian Country Health Service

DiGiacomo M, Davidson PM, Davison J, Moore L, Abbott P (2007)

Stressful life events, resources, and access: key considerations in quitting smoking at an Aboriginal Medical Service.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 31(2): 174-176


Baker A, Ivers R, Bowman J, Butler T, Kay-Lambkin F, Wye P, Walsh R, Pulver L, Richmond R, Belcher J, Wilhelm K, Wodak A (2006)

Where there's smoke, there's fire: high prevalence of smoking among some sub-populations and recommendations for intervention.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 25(1): 85-96

Hallen G (2006)

Tobacco control: one of the best investments in public health.

The Chronicle; 9(1): 1-3

Heath DL, Panaretto K, Manessis V, Larkins S, Malouf P, Reilly E, Elston J (2006)

Factors to consider in smoking interventions for Indigenous women.

Australian Journal of Primary Health; 12(2): 131-136

Ivers RG, Castro A, Parfitt D, Bailie RS, d'Abbs PH, Richmond RL (2006)

Evaluation of a multi-component community tobacco intervention in three remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health; 30(2): 132-136

Ivers RG, Castro A, Parfitt D, Bailie RS, Richmond RL, D'Abbs PH (2006)

The role of remote community stores in reducing the harm resulting from tobacco to Aboriginal people.

Drug and Alcohol Review; 25(3): 195-199


Adams K, Briggs V (2005)

Galnya angin (good air): partnerships in Indigenous tobacco control.

Melbourne: Centre for Excellence in Indigenous tobacco control

Clough AR (2005)

Associations between tobacco and cannabis use in remote Indigenous populations in Northern Australia.

Addiction; 100(3): 346-353

This cross-sectional study examines the associations between newly adopted cannabis use in remote Indigenous communities and prolonged tobacco use. The study employed opportunistic recruitment among three eastern Arnhem Land communities in the Northern Territory, and measured self-reported life-time and current tobacco, cannabis, and other substance use. The findings show that the quantity of tobacco use increased as the quantity of cannabis use increased in users of both substances. The authors conclude that continued substance use in these populations increases the burden of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet abstract

Mohsin M, Bauman A (2005)

Socio-demographic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation among 426,344 pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia.

BMC Public Health; (5): 138

Retrieved 21 December 2005 from


Mark A, McLeod I, Booker J, Ardler C (2004)

The Koori Tobacco Cessation project.

Health Promotion Journal of Australia; 15(3): 200-204


Strempel P, Saggers S, Gray D, Stearne A (2003)

Indigenous drug and alcohol projects: elements of best practice.

Canberra: Australian National Council on Drugs

Last updated: 8 August 2017
Return to top
general box


Share your information » Give us feedback »

Australia's National Research Centre on AOD Workforce Development National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre National Drug Research Institute